Alabama Mussel List

This page has been expanded.

Please use the new page.

Family Margaritiferidae
Spectaclecase Cumberlandia monodonta. Rare. Restricted to the Tennessee River. Extant only in the riverine reaches downstream of Wilson and Guntersville Dams. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Alabama Pearlshell Margaritifera marrianae. Rare. Endemic to small area of south-central Alabama. Most populations found in Escambia River system in Butler, Conecuh, and Crenshaw Counties. In the Alabama River system, known from Limestone Creek, Monroe County. Found in small tributaries. Candidate for federal protection. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Family Unionidae
Mucket Actinonaias ligamentina. Rare. Restricted to Tennessee River drainage. Apparently rare even prior to impoundment. Possibly extant in Second and Shoal Creeks, Lauderdale County. Restricted to shoal habitats. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Pheasantshell Actinonaias pectorosa. Extirpated. Endemic to Cumberlandian Region. Historically occurred in Tennessee River downstream to Muscle Shoals. Not reported since the river was impounded. Limited to shoal habitats.
 
Elktoe Alasmidonta marginata. Extirpated. Restricted to Tennessee River system. Historically found in main stem and large tributaries across northern Alabama. No records since the early twentieth century. Found in shoal habitats.
 
Coosa Elktoe Alasmidonta mccordi. Extinct. Known only from one specimen collected from the Coosa River in St. Clair County prior to its impoundment.
 
Southern Elktoe Alasmidonta triangulata. Rare. Endemic to Apalachicola Basin. Extant in Uchee Creek system in Lee and Russell Counties. Usually found in sandy mud substrata. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Slippershell Mussel Alasmidonta viridis. Rare. Restricted to Tennessee River drainage. Extant in a few tributaries. Usually found in small creeks. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Coosa Fiveridge Amblema elliotti. Special concern. Endemic to the eastern reaches of Mobile Basin upstream of the Fall Line. Primarily in riverine habitats. Moderate Conservation Concern.
 
Threeridge Amblema plicata. Common. Found in Tennessee River drainage, western and lower reaches of Mobile Basin, and some Gulf Coast rivers. Common in many areas of Tennessee drainage, but declining in parts of Mobile Basin and Gulf Coast. May be found in riverine or impounded areas. Important commercial species. Low Conservation Concern.
 
Apalachicola Floater Anodonta heardi. Poorly known. Apparently endemic to Apalachicola Basin. In Alabama, known from a single recent record from Uchee Creek, Russell County. Also records from other portions of the Apalachicola Basin in Georgia and Florida. Found predominantly in sluggish water. Moderate Conservation Concern.
 
Flat Floater Anodonta suborbiculata. Fairly common. Widespread in Tennessee River system, with localized populations in Mobile Basin impoundments. May be a recent invader of Mobile Basin. An odd form similar to A. suborbiculata found in Gulf Coast areas may represent an undescribed species. Usually found in soft sediments in sluggish water. Low Conservation Concern.
 
Rayed Creekshell Anodontoides radiatus. Uncommon. Widespread south of Tennessee River drainage, but declining. Often found in soft sediments in sluggish water. HIGH CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Rock Pocketbook Arcidens confragosus. Fairly common. Common in parts of Tennessee River system, but declining in parts of Mobile Basin. May occur in riverine or impounded habitats. Moderate Conservation Concern.
 
Purple Wartyback Cyclonaias tuberculata. Common. Restricted to Tennessee River system. Usually found in riverine habitat and occasionally in impounded areas where siltation is limited. Lowest Conservation Concern.
 
Fanshell Cyprogenia stegaria. Rare. Restricted to Tennessee River system. Extant only in Wilson Dam tailwaters. Restricted to lotic habitats. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Dromedary Pearlymussel Dromus dromas. Extirpated. Endemic to Cumberlandian Re-gion. Not reported from Alabama since the Tennessee River was impounded. Restricted to lotic habitats. Reintroduction program planned for Wilson Dam tailwaters. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. CONSERVATION ACTION UNDERWAY.
 
Butterfly Ellipsaria lineolata. Fairly common. Distributed widely in Tennessee River system and Mobile Basin. Found almost exclusively in riverine habitats. Low Conservation Concern.
 
Alabama Spike Elliptio arca. Restricted to Mobile Basin. Apparently imperiled through-out, except in Sipsey River. May be found in riffles or pools. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Delicate Spike Elliptio arctata. Uncommon. Widespread but uncommon in Mobile Basin. Some confusion as to the taxonomic status of a similar form in the Gulf Coast systems. Usually encountered in areas with at least some current. Often found under large rocks. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Chipola Slabshell Elliptio chipolaensis. Extirpated. In Alabama, known only from a single record from Howard’s Mill Creek, Houston County, in the Chattahoochee River system. Also records from other portions of the Apalachicola Basin in Georgia and Florida. Occurs in muddy sand in moderate current. Listed as threatened by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
 
Eastern Elliptio Elliptio complanata. Common. Found only in headwaters of Chipola River and tributaries of Chattahoochee River. Occurs in a variety of habitats. Lowest Conservation Concern.
 
Elephantear Elliptio crassidens. Abundant in many areas, but possibly declining in Mobile Basin and Gulf Coast drainages. Found throughout Alabama, except in Choctawhatchee River system. The dominant species in many areas, primarily in riverine habitats. Lowest Conservation Concern.
 
Spike Elliptio dilatata. Rare. Limited to Tennessee River system. Extant in riverine areas downstream of Wilson and Guntersville Dams. Restricted to lotic habitats. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Brother Spike Elliptio fraterna. Extirpated. In Alabama, known from a single Chatta-hoochee River record from Russell County. Also records from other portions of the Apalachicola Basin in Georgia and Florida.
 
Variable Spike Elliptio icterina. Common. Restricted to Gulf Coast systems. Taxonomic status uncertain. Possible species complex, but may be a distinct species. Part of a widely distributed complex of lanceolate Elliptio that occurs from southern Alabama throughout much of the Atlantic coast. May occur in current or sluggish areas. Lowest Conservation Concern.
 
Fluted Elephantear Elliptio mcmichaeli. Locally common, but declining. Apparently endemic to, and now restricted to, the lower reaches of the Choctawhatchee River system. Further taxonomic work may reveal similar forms in adjacent drainages belong to this species. Usually found in habitats with at least some current. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Winged Spike Elliptio nigella. Extinct. Endemic to Apalachicola Basin. Known from a few Alabama records. Last reportedly collected in 1958.
 
Inflated Spike Elliptio purpurella. Rare. Endemic to Apalachicola Basin. Historically found in Chattahoochee and Chipola River systems. Possibly extant in Big Creek, Houston County. Usually found in sand or limestone substrata. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Sugarspoon Epioblasma arcaeformis. Extinct. Endemic to Cumberlandian Region. Occurred in Tennessee River downstream to Muscle Shoals. Has not been reported since the river was impounded.
 
Angled Riffleshell Epioblasma biemarginata. Extinct. Endemic to Cumberlandian Region. Occurred in Tennessee River and major tributaries downstream to Muscle Shoals.
 
Cumberlandian Combshell Epioblasma brevidens. Rare. Endemic to Cumberlandian Region. Extant only in a short reach of Bear Creek, Colbert County. Limited to shoal habitats. Reintroduction program planned for Tennessee River in Wilson Dam tailwaters. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Oyster Mussel Epioblasma capsaeformis. Extirpated. Endemic to Cumberlandian Region. Historically occurred downstream to Muscle Shoals and in Paint Rock and Elk Rivers. Restricted to shoal habitats. Reintroduction underway at Wilson Dam tailwaters. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. CONSERVATION ACTION UNDERWAY.
 
Leafshell Epioblasma flexuosa. Extinct. Once found throughout Tennessee River. Has not been reported since the river was impounded.
 
Yellow Blossom Epioblasma florentina florentina. Extirpated. Endemic to Cumberlandian Region. Historically in Tennessee River downstream to Muscle Shoals and some major tributaries. Has not been reported since early twentieth century. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
No species account because called extinct in Alabama Wildlife.
 
Acornshell Epioblasma haysiana. Extinct. Endemic to Cumberlandian Region. Occurred in Tennessee River downstream to Muscle Shoals and in lower Elk River. Has not been reported since the river was impounded.
 
Narrow Catspaw Epioblasma lenior. Extinct. Endemic to Cumberlandian Region. Known from Paint Rock River system. Has not been reported since early twentieth century.
 
Forkshell Epioblasma lewisii. Extinct. Endemic to Cumberlandian Region. Occurred in Tennessee River downstream to Muscle Shoals. Has not been reported since the river was impounded.
 
Upland Combshell Epioblasma metastriata. Extirpated. Endemic to Mobile Basin. Historically occurred throughout the system. Not reported recently and last collected from Conasauga River. Restricted to shoal habitats. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
 
Catspaw Epioblasma obliquata obliquata. Extirpated. Historically found throughout Ten-nessee River. Has not been reported since the river was impounded. Restricted to shoal habitats. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
 
Southern Acornshell Epioblasma othcaloogensis. Extirpated. Endemic to Coosa and Cahaba River systems upstream of Fall Line. Not reported in recent years. Restricted to shoal habitats. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 
 
Southern Combshell Epioblasma penita. Rare. Endemic to Mobile Basin. Historically distributed throughout the system. Known to be extant only in Buttahatchee River. Possibly distributed upstream into Alabama. Found in shoal habitats. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Rounded Combshell Epioblasma personata. Extinct. Historically distributed throughout Tennessee River. Has not been reported since the river was impounded.
 
Tennessee Riffleshell Epioblasma propinqua. Extinct. Historically occurred throughout Tennessee River. Has not been reported since the river was impounded.
 
Cumberland Leafshell Epioblasma stewardsonii. Extinct. Endemic to Tennessee River system. Has not been reported since the river was impounded.
 
Tubercled Blossom Epioblasma torulosa torulosa. Possibly extinct. Historically found across northern Alabama in Tennessee River. Has not been reported since the river was impounded. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
 
Snuffbox Epioblasma triquetra. Rare. Historically occurred across northern Alabama in Tennessee River and some major tributaries. Known to be extant only in Paint Rock River. Restricted to shoal habitats. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Turgid Blossom Epioblasma turgidula. Possibly extinct. Historically distributed across northern Alabama in Tennessee River proper and some major tributaries. Has not been reported since early twentieth century. Was restricted to shoal habitats. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
 
Tapered Pigtoe Fusconaia burkei. Uncommon. Endemic to Choctawhatchee River system. Found most commonly in areas with at least some current. HIGH CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Gulf Pigtoe Fusconaia cerina. Common. Endemic to Mobile Basin and widespread within the system. Ecomorphs from small streams to large rivers divergent in shell morphology. Usually found in habitats with at least moderate current. Lowest Conservation Concern.
 
Shiny Pigtoe Fusconaia cor. Rare. Endemic to Cumberlandian Region. Once distributed across northern Alabama, but now extant only in Paint Rock River. Restricted to shoal habitats. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Finerayed Pigtoe Fusconaia cuneolus. Rare. Endemic to Cumberlandian Region. Once distributed across northern Alabama, but now extant only in Paint Rock River. Found in shoal habitats. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Ebonyshell Fusconaia ebena. Abundant. Widespread in Mobile Basin and Tennessee River system, primarily in large rivers. Often the dominant species in riverine areas. Important commercial species. Lowest Conservation Concern.
 
Narrow Pigtoe Fusconaia escambia. Rare. Endemic to Gulf Coast drainages, but found primarily in Escambia River system. One historic record from lower Yellow River. Generally found in areas with at least some current. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Round Ebonyshell Fusconaia rotulata. Rare. Endemic to Escambia River system. Usually found in habitats with at least moderate current. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Longsolid Fusconaia subrotunda. Rare. Restricted to Tennessee River system. Extant only in tailwaters of Wilson and Guntersville Dams. Found only in riverine habitats. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Purple Pigtoe Fusconaia succissa. Fairly common. Endemic to Gulf Coast drainages. Found in Choctawhatchee, Escambia, and Yellow Rivers. Usually in habitats with at least some current. Low Conservation Concern.
 
Round Pearlshell Glebula rotundata. Poorly known. Found across extreme southern Alabama. Usually in sluggish water. Moderate Conservation Concern.
 
Finelined Pocketbook Hamiota altilis. Rare. Endemic to the eastern reaches of Mobile Basin. Extant in some tributaries of most major rivers within its distribution. Further taxonomic work may reveal this to be a species complex. Usually found in habitats with at least some current. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGH CONSERVATION CONCERN.
Species account page 93. Change both genus and common name.
 
Orangenacre Mucket Hamiota perovalis. Rare. Endemic to western Mobile Basin. Found in the Tombigbee River system and some of its tributaries. Usually in habitats with at least moderate current. Listed as threatened by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGH CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Shinyrayed Pocketbook Hamiota subangulata. Rare. Restricted to Chattahoochee and Chipola River systems. Only known extant populations are in Uchee Creek, Russell County, and Big Creek, Houston County. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Cracking Pearlymussel Hemistena lata. Rare. Restricted to Tennessee River system. Only extant in Elk River above impounded reach. Limited to riverine habitats. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Pink Mucket Lampsilis abrupta. Rare. Restricted to Tennessee River system. Extant only in tailwaters of Tennessee River dams and in a short reach of Bear Creek in Colbert County. Found in riverine habitats. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Southern Sandshell Lampsilis australis. Rare. Endemic to Gulf Coast drainages. Found in Choctawhatchee, Escambia, and Yellow River systems usually in soft sediments with at least some current. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Lined Pocketbook Lampsilis binominata. Extinct. Endemic to Apalachicola Basin. Historically occurred in Chattahoochee River, but has not been reported from Alabama since the early 1940s. Was reported from Apalachicola Basin as late as the 1960s.
 
Wavyrayed Lampmussel Lampsilis fasciola. Special concern. Restricted to Tennessee River drainage. Extant only in Bear Creek, Colbert County, and Paint Rock River system. Limited to shoal habitats. Moderate Conservation Concern.
 
Haddleton Lampmussel Lampsilis haddletoni. Extinct. Known from only two specimens from West Fork Choctawhatchee River. Not collected for almost 50 years.
 
Southern Pocketbook Lampsilis ornata. Fairly common. Widespread in Mobile Basin. Also found sparingly in the Conecuh River drainage. Occurs in a variety of habitats. Low Conservation Concern.
 
Pocketbook Lampsilis ovata. Fairly common. Found only in Tennessee River drainage. Extant in tailwaters of Tennessee River dams and some large tributaries. Found in shoals and pools in tributaries, but only in riverine habitats in large rivers. Low Conservation Concern.
 
Southern Fatmucket Lampsilis straminea claibornensis. Fairly common. Found throughout Alabama south of Tennessee River drainage, except in the Black Belt where replaced by L. s. straminea. Appears to be smooth-shelled ecomorph of L. s. straminea. Usually found in slow to moderate current, but generally absent from impoundments. Low Conservation Concern.
 
Rough Fatmucket Lampsilis straminea straminea. Poorly known. Endemic to the Black Belt region of Alabama and Mississippi. Replaced by smooth-shelled L. s. claibornensis outside of Black Belt. Found most often in sluggish to moderate current. Moderate Conservation Concern.
 
Yellow Sandshell Lampsilis teres. Common. Distributed throughout Alabama. Often found in both free-flowing and impounded rivers. May be found in gravel, sand, or mud. Lowest Conservation Concern.
 
Alabama Lampmussel Lampsilis virescens. Rare. Endemic to Tennessee River system. Historically occurred downstream to Muscle Shoals. Eliminated throughout its distribution except in Paint Rock River system. Occurs in moderate current. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
White Heelsplitter Lasmigona complanata complanata. Special concern. Restricted to Tennessee River system. Found in impounded reaches in Wheeler Reservoir and free-flowing reaches of some large tributaries. Moderate Conservation Concern.
 
Alabama Heelsplitter Lasmigona complanata alabamensis. Special concern. Endemic to Mobile Basin. Found primarily in free-flowing reaches, but may occur in pools. Moderate Conservation Concern.
 
Flutedshell Lasmigona costata. Uncommon. Limited to Tennessee River system. Extant in Paint Rock and Elk Rivers and a short reach of Bear Creek in Colbert County. Usually found in shoal habitats. HIGH CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Tennessee Heelsplitter Lasmigona holstonia. Uncommon. Found in Tennessee River tributaries. Usually occurs in small streams. HIGH CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Green Floater Lasmigona subviridis. Extirpated. In Alabama, known from a single Chat-tahoochee River record from Russell County collected in nineteenth century. Other records available from Apalachicola Basin in Georgia and Florida.
 
Birdwing Pearlymussel Lemiox rimosus. Extirpated. Endemic to Tennessee River system. Historically occurred downstream to Muscle Shoals. Not reported since the river was impounded. Reintroduction program for Wilson Dam tailwaters underway. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. CONSERVATION ACTION UNDERWAY.
 
Fragile Papershell Leptodea fragilis. Fairly common. Widespread in Tennessee River system and Mobile Basin. Occurs in both riverine and impounded habitats. Lowest Conservation Concern.
 
Scaleshell Leptodea leptodon. Extirpated. Historically occurred in Tennessee River upstream to Muscle Shoals. Not reported since the river was impounded. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
 
Black Sandshell Ligumia recta. Uncommon in Tennessee River system, rare in Mobile Basin. Found in riverine habitats. HIGH CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Pondmussel Ligumia subrostrata. Poorly known. Widespread, but localized. Known from at least one small impoundment in Mobile County. Found in sluggish water. Moderate Conservation Concern.
 
Alabama Moccasinshell Medionidus acutissimus. Uncommon. Occurs in the Mobile Basin and Gulf Coast drainages.Widespread but localized in Mobile Basin. Apparently extirpated from Gulf Coast systems. Usually occurs in riffles and shoals. Listed as threatened by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGH CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Cumberland Moccasinshell Medionidus conradicus. Rare. Endemic to Cumberlandian Region. Extant in Paint Rock River system and Spring Creek system in Colbert County. Occurs in moderate to swift current. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Coosa Moccasinshell Medionidus parvulus. Extirpated. Endemic to Mobile Basin. Historically widespread in the system, now in a few localized populations in Coosa River headwater tributaries in Georgia. Found in riffles and shoals. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
 
Gulf Moccasinshell Medionidus penicillatus. Rare. Endemic to Apalachicola Basin and Econfina Creek, Florida. Occurred in Chattahoochee and Chipola River systems. Known to be extant only in Big Creek, Houston County. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Washboard Megalonaias nervosa. Fairly common. Distributed throughout Alabama, with exception of Choctawhatchee and Yellow River systems. Found in both riverine and impounded areas. Important commercial species. Lowest Conservation Concern.
 
Threehorn Wartyback Obliquaria reflexa. Common. Occurs throughout Tennessee River system and Mobile Basin. Found in both riverine and impounded habitats. Lowest Conservation Concern.
 
Southern Hickorynut Obovaria jacksoniana. Special concern. Restricted to the western reaches of the Mobile Basin. Extant in some tributaries. Usually occurs in shoal habitats. Moderate Conservation Concern.
 
Hickorynut Obovaria olivaria. Extirpated. Historically occurred in Tennessee River upstream to Muscle Shoals. Last reported in the late 1970s.  
 
Ring Pink Obovaria retusa. Rare. Restricted to Tennessee River system. Possibly extant in tailwaters of Wilson Dam. Usually found in lotic habitats. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Round Hickorynut Obovaria subrotunda. Rare. Restricted to Tennessee River system. Extant only in Paint Rock River system. Usually found in areas of moderate current. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Alabama Hickorynut Obovaria unicolor. Restricted to the western reaches of Mobile Basin. Common only in Sipsey River, rare elsewhere. Extant in some Tombigbee River tributaries. Usually found in areas with at least some current. HIGH CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Littlewing Pearlymussel Pegias fabula. Extirpated. Endemic to Cumberlandian Region. Historically occurred in some northern Alabama tributaries. Not reported from Alabama since early twentieth century. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
 
Bankclimber Plectomerus dombeyanus. Common. Found primarily in Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers and also in extreme lower reaches of Coosa and Cahaba Rivers. Occurs in both sluggish and flowing water, often on steep slopes. Lowest Conservation Concern.
 
Purple Bankclimber Plectomerus sloatianus. Rare. Restricted to Chattahoochee River system. Thought extirpated from system until a live specimen recently was collected in upper Goat Rock impoundment. Usually found in moderate current. Listed as threatened by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
White Wartyback Plethobasus cicatricosus. Rare. Restricted to Tennessee River. Appar-ently eliminated throughout its distribution except in Wilson Dam tailwaters. Restricted to riverine habitats. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Orangefoot Pimpleback Plethobasus cooperianus. Rare. Restricted to Tennessee River. May be extant in tailwaters of Wilson and/or Guntersville Dams. Restricted to riverine habitats. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Sheepnose Plethobasus cyphyus. Rare. Found only in Tennessee River. Extant in riverine reaches downstream of Wilson and Guntersville Dams. Restricted to riverine habitats. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Highnut Pleurobema altum. Extinct. Endemic to Mobile Basin. Has not been reported since early twentieth century.
 
Hazel Pigtoe Pleurobema avellanum. Extinct. Endemic to Mobile Basin. Has not been reported since mid-twentieth century.
 
Clubshell Pleurobema clava. Extirpated. Historically found across northern Alabama in Tennessee River. Has not been reported from the state since the river was impounded. Restricted to lotic habitats. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
 
Ohio Pigtoe Pleurobema cordatum. Special concern. Found throughout Tennessee River in northern Alabama. Historically the most abundant species. Today found only in small numbers in tailwaters of Guntersville and Wilson Dams. Restricted to riverine habitats. Formerly an important commercial species. Moderate Conservation Concern.
 
Black Clubshell Pleurobema curtum. Extirpated. Endemic to Tombigbee River system. Possibly extant only in East Fork Tombigbee River in Mississippi. Found in riffles and runs. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
 
Southern Clubshell Pleurobema decisum. Uncommon. Found throughout Mobile Basin, except the Mobile Delta. Still widespread but localized. Restricted to shoal habitats. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGH CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Yellow Pigtoe Pleurobema flavidulum. Extinct. Endemic to Mobile Basin. Has not been reported since early twentieth century.
 
Southern Pigtoe Pleurobema georgianum. Rare. Endemic to Coosa River system.Extant in a few tributaries. Restricted to shoal habitats. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Brown Pigtoe Pleurobema hagleri. Extinct. Endemic to the Black Warrior River system upstream of the Fall Line. Has not been reported since early twentieth century.
 
Georgia Pigtoe Pleurobema hanleyianum. Extinct. Endemic to Mobile Basin. Has not been reported since mid-twentieth century.
 
Alabama Pigtoe Pleurobema johannis. Extinct. Endemic to Mobile Basin. Has not been reported since early twentieth century.
 
Flat Pigtoe Pleurobema marshalli. Extirpated. Endemic to Tombigbee River system. Has not been reported since completion of Tennessee-Tombigee Waterway. Restricted to shoals and runs. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
 
Coosa Pigtoe Pleurobema murrayense. Extinct. Endemic to Mobile Basin. Has not been reported since mid-twentieth century.
 
Tennessee Clubshell Pleurobema oviforme. Rare. Endemic to Cumberlandian Region. Extant in Alabama only in Paint Rock River system. Found in lotic habitats. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Ovate Clubshell Pleurobema perovatum. Rare. Endemic to Mobile Basin. Widely distributed in the system, but in low numbers and localized. Occurs in shoals and runs. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Rough Pigtoe Pleurobema plenum. Rare. Historically distributed throughout Tennessee River. Extant only in tailwaters of Wilson Dam and possibly Guntersville Dam. Found in lotic habitats. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Oval Pigtoe Pleurobema pyriforme. Rare. Found only in a few Gulf Coast river systems. Extant only in Big Creek, Houston County. Usually found in areas with at least some current. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Warrior Pigtoe Pleurobema rubellum. Rare. Endemic to Black Warrior River system upstream of the Fall Line. Extant only in Sipsey Fork and North River. Found in riffles and shoals. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
Species account page 72. Change species and common name.
 
Pyramid Pigtoe Pleurobema rubrum. Rare. Historically distributed throughout Tennessee River. Extant only in tailwaters of Wilson and Guntersville Dams. Found in lotic habitats. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Round Pigtoe Pleurobema sintoxia. Rare. Historically distributed throughout Tennessee River. Extant only in tailwaters of Wilson and Guntersville Dams. Found in lotic habitats. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Fuzzy Pigtoe Pleurobema strodeanum. Special concern. Endemic to Gulf Coast drainages. Found in Choctawhatchee, Escambia, and Yellow River systems. Occurs both in current and sluggish areas. HIGH CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Heavy Pigtoe Pleurobema taitianum. Rare. Endemic to Mobile Basin. Historically occurred in main stem habitats of Tombigbee, Alabama, Coosa, and Cahaba Rivers. Extant in very localized populations in Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers. Found in flowing water. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
True Pigtoe Pleurobema verum. Extinct. Endemic to Mobile Basin. Has not been reported since early twentieth century.
 
Tennessee Pigtoe Pleuronaia barnesiana. Local and uncommon. Endemic to Cumber-landian Region. Distributed across northern Alabama. Extant in a few tributaries, but extirpated from Tennessee River proper. Limited to shoal habitats. HIGH CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Slabside Pearlymussel Pleuronaia dolabelloides. Rare. Endemic to Tennessee River system. Only extant populations are in Paint Rock River system and a short reach of Bear Creek, Colbert County. Found in shoal habitats. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Pink Heelsplitter Potamilus alatus. Common. Restricted to Tennessee River system in both riverine and impounded habitats. Lowest Conservation Concern.
 
Inflated Heelsplitter Potamilus inflatus. Uncommon. Restricted to Mobile Basin. Localized populations extant in Black Warrior, Tombigbee, and Alabama Rivers. Found in soft substrata in slow to moderate current. Listed as threatened by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGH CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Pink Papershell Potamilus ohiensis. Fairly common. Restricted to Tennessee River system. Found primarily in soft substrata of impounded areas. Low Conservation Concern.
 
Bleufer Potamilus purpuratus. Fairly common. Restricted to Mobile Basin where widespread. Occurs both in pools and shoals. Often found under large rocks on shoals. Lowest Conservation Concern.
 
Kidneyshell Ptychobranchus fasciolaris. Rare. Restricted to Tennessee River system. Extant in tailwaters of Wilson and Guntersville Dams, Paint Rock River system, and a short reach of Bear Creek in Colbert County. Always found in flowing water. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Triangular Kidneyshell Ptychobranchus greenii. Rare. Endemic to Mobile Basin upstream of the Fall Line. Extant in a few tributaries of most major rivers in that system. Possible species complex. Occurs in shoal habitats. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Southern Kidneyshell Ptychobranchus jonesi. Rare. Endemic to Gulf Coast drainages. Historically found in Choctawhatchee, Escambia, and Yellow River systems. Only known extant population is in West Fork Choctawhatchee River. Usually found in areas with at least some current. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Fluted Kidneyshell Ptychobranchus subtentum. Extirpated. Endemic to Cumberlandian Region. Historically occurred downstream to Muscle Shoals. Has not been reported from Alabama since river was impounded. Restricted to shoal habitats. Recent candidate for federal protection.
 
Eastern Floater Pyganodon cataracta. Poorly known. Restricted to Chattahoochee and possibly Chipola River systems. Not reported from the state since the 1970s. Usually found in soft sediments in sluggish water. Habitat often overlooked in surveys. Moderate Conservation Concern.
 
Giant Floater Pyganodon grandis. Common. Found throughout Alabama. Occurs in almost any habitat, including farm ponds. Lowest Conservation Concern.
 
Southern Mapleleaf Quadrula apiculata. Common. Formerly restricted to the Mobile Basin. Introduced into lower Tennessee River. Highly variable in shell morphology and may represent a species complex. Found in riverine and impounded habitats. Important commercial species. Lowest Conservation Concern.
 
Alabama Orb Quadrula asperata. Common. Endemic to Mobile Basin. Widespread and often common. Usually found in habitats with at least some current. Unsculptured form in Tallapoosa River system may be a valid species (Q. archeri). Lowest Conservation Concern.
 
Rabbitsfoot Quadrula cylindrica cylindrica. Rare. Restricted to Tennessee River system. Extant in Paint Rock River system and a short reach of Bear Creek, Colbert County. Usually found along margins of shoals, but may be found in pools. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Cumberland Monkeyface Quadrula intermedia. Extirpated. Endemic to Tennessee River system. Historically occurred downstream to Muscle Shoals. Has not been reported from Alabama since the river was impounded. Restricted to lotic habitats. Potential for reintroduction into Wilson Dam tailwaters. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
 
Monkeyface Quadrula metanevra. Uncommon. Found in Tennessee River system and Mobile Basin. Almost always occurs in riverine habitats. Moderate Conservation Concern.
 
Pimpleback Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa. Common. Restricted to Tennessee River system. Found in Tennessee River proper and large tributaries. Occurs in riverine and impounded habitats. Lowest Conservation Concern.
 
Mapleleaf Quadrula quadrula. Common. Apparently restricted to Tennessee River system. Specimens with similar shell morphology in Mobile Basin are probably aberrant Q. apiculata. Found both in current and sluggish water. Does well in impoundments. Important commercial species. Lowest Conservation Concern.
 
Purple Pimpleback Quadrula refulgens. Poorly known. Possibly of marginal occurrence in Alabama. One record from Escatawpa River in extreme southwestern Alabama may represent a transplanted shell. Moderate Conservation Concern.
 
Ridged Mapleleaf Quadrula rumphiana. Fairly common. Endemic to Mobile Basin. Widespread in the system, it is highly variable in shell morphology and may represent a species complex. Found most commonly in areas with at least some current. Low Conservation Concern.
 
Appalachian Monkeyface Quadrula sparsa. Extirpated. Acrcharological records recently found of its occurrence at Muscle Shoals and Hobbs Island in Tennessee River basin.
No species account available because not included in Alabama Wildlife.
 
Stirrupshell Quadrula stapes. Possibly extinct. Endemic to Mobile Basin. Found only in Tombigbee River system historically. Prehistoric shells occasionally found on Alabama River. Not reported since construction of Tennessee-Tombigee Waterway. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
 
Sculptured Pigtoe Quincuncina infucata. Rare. Restricted to some tributaries of Chattahoochee and Chipola Rivers. Extant in Alabama only in Big Creek, Houston County, and a few tributaries of Chattahoochee River. Found in both pools and shoals. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Alabama Creekmussel Strophitus connasaugaensis. Uncommon. Endemic to Mobile Basin. Found in Coosa and Cahaba River systems. May occur in areas with little to moderate current. HIGH CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Southern Creekmussel Strophitus subvexus. Special concern. Found throughout Alabama south of Tennessee River system. Often found in sluggish water. Moderate Conservation Concern.
 
Creeper Strophitus undulatus. Rare. Limited to Tennessee River drainage. Extant only in a short reach of Bear Creek, Colbert County. Occurs in a variety of habitats. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Southern Purple Lilliput Toxolasma corvunculus. Rare. Endemic to Mobile Basin. For-merly widespread in the system, now in small, highly localized populations. Not reported for several years. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Pale Lilliput Toxolasma cylindrellus. Rare. Endemic to middle reaches of Tennessee River system. Extirpated throughout its distribution except in Paint Rock River system. Usually found in moderate current. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Purple Lilliput Toxolasma lividus. Fairly common. Restricted to Tennessee River drainage. Found in both riverine and impounded areas. Low Conservation Concern.
 
Lilliput Toxolasma parvus. Poorly known. Recognized from Tennessee River system, Mobile Basin, and Gulf Coast drainages. Taxonomic work may reveal a species complex and restrict this distribution. Occurs primarily in soft sediments in sluggish water. Moderate Conservation Concern.
 
Iridescent Lilliput Toxolasma paulus. Poorly known. Restricted to Apalachicola Basin and Gulf Coast drainages. Populations west of Apalachicola River system may represent one or more undescribed species. Occurs both in current and sluggish water. Moderate Conservation Concern.
 
Pistolgrip Tritogonia verrucosa. Fairly common. Widely distributed in Tennessee River drainage and Mobile Basin. Usually found in riverine habitats, but occasionally in reservoirs. Low Conservation Concern.
 
Fawnsfoot Truncilla donaciformis. Common in much of Tennessee River drainage, uncommon in Mobile Basin. Most often found in riverine areas, but occasionally in impounded areas with sandy substrata. Moderate Conservation Concern.
 
Deertoe Truncilla truncata. Rare. Found in Tennessee River system. Extant in Wilson Dam tailwaters and several large tributaries. HIGHEST CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Florida Pondhorn Uniomerus carolinianus. Poorly known. Restricted to Chattahoochee and Chipola River systems. Apparently extant only in Uchee Creek, Russell County. May be found in areas with little or no current. Moderate Conservation Concern.
 
Pondhorn Uniomerus tetralasmus. Fairly common. Found across the Gulf Coast west of the Apalachicola Basin, and much of the Mobile Basin. Often found in areas with little or no current, and may occur in intermittent ponds and streams. Low Conservation Concern.
 
Paper Pondshell Utterbackia imbecillis. Common. Found statewide. Utilizes almost any habitat, including farm ponds. Lowest Conservation Concern.
 
Florida Floater Utterbackia peggyae. Poorly known. Restricted to Apalachicola Basin. In, Alabama, known from a single record from Big Creek Lake, Houston County. Other records from Apalachicola Basin in Georgia and Florida. Habitat often overlooked during surveys. Moderate Conservation Concern.
 
Choctaw Bean Villosa choctawensis. Rare. Endemic to Gulf Coast drainages. Found in Choctawhatchee, Escambia, and Yellow River systems. Usually found in areas with at least some current. HIGH CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Rayed Bean Villosa fabilis. Extirpated. Represented by a single prehistoric record from a Tennessee River shell midden in Jackson County.
No species account available because not included in Alabama Wildlife.
 
Rainbow Villosa iris. Special concern. Restricted to Tennessee River system. Extant in several tributaries. Usually in shoal habitats. Moderate Conservation Concern.
 
Little Spectaclecase Villosa lienosa. Common. Occurs throughout Alabama south of the Tennessee River drainage. Found in a variety of habitats. Lowest Conservation Concern.
 
Alabama Rainbow Villosa nebulosa. Special concern. Found in Mobile Basin upstream of the Fall Line. Occurs in small streams. Moderate Conservation Concern.
 
Painted Creekshell Villosa taeniata. Special concern. Endemic to Cumberlandian Region. Usually in small to medium creeks in shoal habitats. Moderate Conservation Concern.
 
Cumberland Bean Villosa trabalis. Extirpated. Endemic to Cumberlandian Region. Historically occurred downstream to Muscle Shoals. Has not been reported since the river was impounded. Restricted to lotic habitats. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
 
Mountain Creekshell Villosa vanuxemensis. Fairly common. Endemic to Tennessee and Cumberland River systems. Extant in several tributaries. Relict population in tailwaters of Wilson Dam. May occur in shoal or pool habitats. Low Conservation Concern.
 
Coosa Creekshell Villosa umbrans. Rare. Endemic to Mobile Basin. Highly localized in tributaries upstream of the Fall Line. Found primarily in small streams. HIGH CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Southern Rainbow Villosa vibex. Common. Found in a variety of habitats throughout Alabama south of the Tennessee River drainage. Lowest Conservation Concern.
 
Downy Rainbow Villosa villosa. Rare. Found in extreme southeastern Alabama in small tributaries in the Chattahoochee and Choctawhatchee River systems and possibly in the headwaters of the Chipola River. May be in riffle or pool habitats. HIGH CONSERVATION CONCERN.
 
Order Veneroida
Family Dreissenidae
Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Exotic. In Alabama, not reported outside of main channel of Tennessee River. Densities increasing slowly but steadily since early 1990s.
 
Family Corbiculidae
Asian Clam Corbicula fluminea. Exotic. Introduced in the mid-1900s and now found throughout Alabama. Densities vary, but may reach several hundred per square meter and may be cyclic with extensive mortality events reported regularly.

Official Web site of Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources
©2008 Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources   |   64 N. Union Street, Suite 468 - Montgomery, Alabama 36130