Extinct or Extirpated

Mussel Thought to be Extinct or Extirpated in Alabama

PHEASANTSHELL
Actinonaias pectorosa (Conrad)
OTHER NAMES. None.
DESCRIPTION. Has moderately thick shell (max. length = 150 mm [5 7/8 in.]), elongate oval to elliptical in outline, and inflated. Dorsal and ventral margins slightly convex to almost straight; anterior margin broadly rounded and posterior margin narrowly rounded to bluntly pointed. Females may be somewhat more rounded posteriorly than males, and have slight marsupial swelling. Posterior ridge rounded and posterior slope steep dorsally, becoming more flat ventrally. Shell disk and posterior slope without sculpture. Umbos moderately inflated, but elevated only slightly above hinge line. Periostracum tawny to light greenish brown and usually marked with faint, wide, broken, green rays. Pseudocardinal teeth erect and triangular; lateral teeth short and straight. A long, moderately wide interdentum separates them, and the umbo cavity is open and moderately deep. Shell nacre white, but may have a light salmon wash, particularly in the umbo cavity. (Modified from Simpson 1914, Parmalee and Bogan 1998)     
DISTRIBUTION. Endemic to Tennessee and Cumberland River systems (Burch 1975, Parmalee and Bogan 1998). Historically occurred in Tennessee River downstream to Muscle Shoals, but not reported there since the river was impounded (Garner and McGregor 2001). Also occurred in Paint Rock River (Isom and Yokley 1973), and possibly other tributaries in Alabama, but no recent reports of continued existence there.
HABITAT. Shoals, usually at shallow depths (Parmalee and Bogan 1998).
LIFE HISTORY AND ECOLOGY. A long-term brooder, with gravid specimens reported in September and May (Ortmann 1921). Hosts of glochidia unknown.
BASIS FOR STATUS CLASSIFICATION. Apparently unable to adapt to impounded habitats. Its disappearance from Paint Rock River and possibly other tributaries likely caused by degradation of habitat from channelization, sedimentation, and pollution from poor agricultural practices. Listed as a species of special concern throughout its distribution (Williams et al. 1993), and considered endangered (Stansbery 1976a) and possibly extirpated (Lydeard et al. 1999) in Alabama.
                Prepared by: Jeffrey T. Garner
 
ELKTOE
Alasmidonta marginata Say
OTHER NAMES. None.
DESCRIPTION. Shell elongate, somewhat rhomboid and inflated, thin when young, but thickening and becoming solid with age (max. length = 75 mm [2 15/16 in.]). Anterior margin sharply rounded and posterior margin straight, but obliquely oriented. Ventral margin may be straight, slightly convex, or slightly concave. Pos-terior ridge high and sharp, with numerous fine, radial ridges on posterior slope that extend upward toward the margin. Shell disk smooth. Umbos large, inflated, elevated above the hinge line, and almost centrally positioned. Umbo sculpture consists of a few strong, usually double-looped, corrugations. Periostracum tawny or greenish, usually with numerous green or black rays, plus additional dark spots that appear in connection with the rays. Pseudocardinal teeth thin, low, and elongate; lateral teeth manifested as a thickened hinge line. No interdentum present, and umbo cavity moderately deep. Shell nacre bluish white, occasionally with shades of pink. (Modified from Simpson 1914, Parmalee and Bogan 1998)
DISTRIBUTION. Encompasses much of the Interior Basin, including the Ohio, Cumberland, and Tennessee River systems. Also in St. Lawrence River drainage, and Susquehanna River drainage. Historically known from the Tennessee River at Muscle Shoals and large Tennessee River tributaries (Clarke 1981, Parmalee and Bogan 1998).
HABITAT. Seems to prefer small, shallow rivers with moderately swift current and a mixture of fine gravel and sand (Parmalee and Bogan 1998). However, its presence at Muscle Shoals prior to impoundment of the Tennessee River attests to its ability to inhabit large rivers under some conditions.
LIFE HISTORY AND ECOLOGY. A long-term brooder, with a breeding season extending from mid-July to mid-June. Reported hosts of glochidia include white sucker, northern hog sucker, shorthead redhorse, rock bass, and warmouth (Parmalee and Bogan 1998).
BASIS FOR STATUS CLASSIFICATION. Has disappeared from much of former distribution and extant populations isolated, resulting in classification as a species of special concern (Williams et al. 1993). Has not been reported from Alabama for several decades, although listed as a species of special concern there (Stansbery 1976a, Lydeard et al. 1999).
                Prepared by: Stuart W. McGregor
 
SOUTHERN ELKTOE
Alasmidonta triangulata (I. Lea)
OTHER NAMES. None.
DESCRIPTION. Shell moderately thin, inflated, subtriangular in outline, with a rounded anterior margin and bluntly pointed posterior margin (max. length = 70 mm [2 3/4 in.]). Posterior ridge pronounced, steep, and finely rugose. Shell disk without sculpture, but lower posterior slope scaly. Umbos high and full, positioned anterior of the center. Umbo sculpture consists of strong, concentric ridges, with radial lirae in front and behind. Periostracum of young specimens dark yellowish green to bluish green, and strongly rayed when viewed with transmitted light. Adults glossy brownish black and appear finely rayed with transmitted light. Right valve has single pseudocardinal tooth and left valve has two short, pointed pseudocardinals; lateral teeth rudimentary. Shell nacre bluish white to salmon. (Modified from Simpson 1914, Clench and Turner 1956, Brim Box and Williams 2000)
DISTRIBUTION. Endemic to Apalachicola Basin, including Chattahoochee River system in Alabama. Last reported from Uchee and Little Uchee Creeks in Russell and Lee Counties (Brim Box and Williams 2000).
HABITAT. Seems to prefer sandy mud substrata, particularly in vicinity of rocks in larger creeks and rivers. Also occurs in stable sand and gravel bars (Clench and Turner 1956, Brim Box and Williams 2000).
LIFE HISTORY AND ECOLOGY. A long-term brooder with glochidia reported in the marsupia year round. Hosts of glochidia unknown (Brim Box and Williams 2000).
BASIS FOR STATUS CLASSIFICATION. Regarded as rare (Clench and Turner 1956), and classified as endangered throughout its distribution (Williams et al. 1993) based on significant reductions in distribution and habitat degradation and fragmentation (Brim Box and Williams 2000). Listed as a species of special concern (Stansbery 1976a) and as imperiled in Alabama (Lydeard et al. 1999).
                Prepared by: Stuart W. McGregor
 
CHIPOLA SLABSHELL
Elliptio chipolaensis (Walker)
OTHER NAMES. None.
DESCRIPTION. Has moderately thin, inflated shell (max. length = 85 mm [3 3/8 in.]), ovate to subelliptical in outline, with slightly convex dorsal and ventral margins, rounded anterior margin, and a posterior margin that is slightly biangulate. Posterior ridge rounded dorsally, but flattens with a ventral progression, forming the posterior biangulation at distal end. Posterior slope wide, shallow, and slightly concave. Shell disk and posterior slope unsculptured. Umbos prominent and elevated above the hinge line. Periostracum chestnut brown, often darker in the umbo area and with alternating light and dark bands in a ventral progression. Pseudocardinal teeth compressed and crenulate; lateral teeth long, slender, and slightly curved. Umbo cavity deep. Shell nacre salmon. (Modified from Simpson 1914, Williams and Butler 1994)
DISTRIBUTION. Thought to be endemic to Chipola River drainage, generally in the main stem and lower ends of larger tributaries (van der Schalie 1940, Clench and Turner 1956, Williams and Butler 1994), until a museum record from a Chattahoochee River tributary was reported (Brim Box and Williams 2000). Species was not reported from Alabama (Brim Box and Williams 2000) and appears extirpated from the state.
HABITAT. Silty sand substrata in large creeks and rivers with slow to moderate flow (van der Schalie 1940, Williams and Butler 1994, Brim Box and Williams 2000).
LIFE HISTORY AND ECOLOGY. Little known, although presumably a short-term brooder. Gravid females collected in late June (Brim Box and Williams 2000).
BASIS FOR STATUS CLASSIFICATION. Has a narrowly restricted distribution and could suffer severely from habitat degradation. Classified as threatened throughout distribution (Williams et al. 1993), and listed as extirpated from Alabama (Lydeard et al. 1999). Listed as threatened by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1998.
                Prepared by: Stuart W. McGregor
 
BROTHER SPIKE
Elliptio fraterna (I. Lea)
OTHER NAMES. None.
DESCRIPTION. Has fairly thin, but solid, shell (max. length = 100 mm [3 15/16 in.]), elongate and somewhat compressed, subrhomboidal in outline. Anterior margin rounded and posterior margin slightly biangulate. Dorsal and ventral margins straight to slightly convex. Posterior ridge well defined near umbo, but becomes less distinct ventrally. A faint secondary ridge usually present dorsally, resulting in the biangulation of the posterior margin. Posterior slope adorned with radially oriented wrinkles that extend from posterior ridge to dorsal margin. Umbos moderately full, with little elevation above the hinge line. Periostracum smooth and shiny, reddish to yellowish brown in young specimens, often with fine green rays, but darkening with age to become dark reddish brown. Pseudocardinal teeth moderately thick, low, and stumpy; lateral teeth moderately long and slightly curved, and with no interdentum, remote from the pseudocardinals. Umbo cavity very shallow. Shell nacre varies from white to purple. (Modified from Simpson 1914, Johnson 1970, Brim Box and Williams 2000)
DISTRIBUTION. Known only from Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers of Alabama and Georgia and Savannah River drainage of South Carolina. Alabama records limited to the main stem Chattahoochee River (Brim Box and Williams 2000).
HABITAT. Rivers and large tributaries in shallow lotic areas with sandy substrata (Britton and Fuller 1979, Brim Box and Williams 2000).
LIFE HISTORY AND ECOLOGY. No information available, but presumably a short-term brooder like its congeners.
BASIS FOR STATUS CLASSIFICATION. Appears to have been rare historically, based on a paucity of specimens in the known few collections. Has not been reported from Apalachicola Basin since 1929. Based on museum records and failure to collect this species during recent surveys, Brim Box and Williams (2000) classified it as extirpated from the basin. Also classified as endangered throughout its distribution (Williams et al. 1993), and listed as imperiled and possibly extinct in Alabama (Lydeard et al. 1999).
                Prepared by: Stuart W. McGregor
 
 
 
 
UPLAND COMBSHELL
Epioblasma metastriata (Conrad)
OTHER NAMES. None.
DESCRIPTION. Has moderately solid and inflated shell (max. length = 40 mm [1 5/8 in.]), elongate and subtriangular to subquadrate in outline. Anterior margin rounded. Posterior margin of females rounded, but males are truncate posteriorly. Ventral margin broadly rounded, but in adult females interrupted by a marsupial swelling toward posterior end. A slight sulcus is located anterior to the marsupial swelling. Posterior slope low and evenly rounded in males, but more distinct in females, being incorporated into the marsupial swelling. Fine, radial striations adorn the shell posteriorly, generally stronger on the marsupial swelling of females. Umbos moderately full and elevated above the hinge line. Periostracum smooth and shiny, yellowish to greenish yellow, with numerous narrow, light green rays. Pseudocardinal teeth somewhat elongate and doubled in both valves; lateral teeth short and almost straight. A short, narrow interdentum separates them. Umbo cavity very shallow. Shell nacre white, but may have a bluish tinge. (Modified from Simpson 1914, Parmalee and Bogan 1998)
DISTRIBUTION. Endemic to Mobile Basin in Alabama, Georgia, and Tennessee. Known from Coosa, Cahaba, and Black Warrior River systems (USFWS 2000).
HABITAT. Lotic areas in medium to large rivers.
LIFE HISTORY AND ECOLOGY. Unknown. Other species of Epioblasma are long-term brooders and use darters (Percidae) as glochidial hosts (Yeager and Saylor 1995, Rogers et al. 2001).
BASIS FOR STATUS CLASSIFICATION. Suffered drastic declines with modern perturbations to habitat. Extirpated from most of its former distribution and may be extinct. Was classified as endangered throughout its distribution (Williams et al. 1993) and threatened in (Stansbery 1976a) and possibly extirpated from Alabama (Lydeard et al. 1999). Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1993.
                Prepared by: Wendell R. Haag
 
CATSPAW
Epioblasma obliquata obliquata (Rafinesque)
OTHER NAMES. Peewee, Cat’s Claw.
DESCRIPTION. Shells solid and trapezoidal to subovate in outline, with males somewhat truncate anteriorly (max. length = 70 mm [2 3/4 in.]) and females rounded anteriorly (max. length = 50 mm [2 in.]). Males bluntly pointed posteriorly and females of reproductive age irregularly ovate, with a marsupial swelling producing an emargination. Marsupial swelling inflated, rounded, radially striate, and separated from posterior ridge by a strong sulcus. Posterior ridge of males low and not well developed, but it is doubled. In females, posterior ridge somewhat obscured by the sulcus. Shell disk without sculpture. Umbos prominent and elevated above the hinge line. Umbo sculpture consists of a few faint corrugations, which may be broken or double looped. Periostracum smooth and somewhat shiny, yellowish green to brown, usually with numerous fine, wavy green rays. Pseudocardinal teeth subtriangular and ragged, separated from the short, straight lateral teeth by a short, wide interdentum. Umbo cavity shallow. Shell nacre usually purple, but may be white. (Modified from Simpson 1914, Johnson 1978, and Parmalee and Bogan 1998)
DISTRIBUTION. Historically, throughout much of the eastern Interior Basin, including parts of the Ohio and Cumberland Rivers and up the Tennessee River as far as Muscle Shoals (Parmalee and Bogan, 1998). Although listed as extinct by Turgeon et al. (1998), a viable population is extant in Killbuck Creek of the Muskingum River system in Ohio (R.S. Butler, USFWS, pers. comm.).
HABITAT. Lotic areas in medium to large rivers (Parmalee and Bogan 1998).
LIFE HISTORY AND ECOLOGY. Nothing known. Probably a long-term brooder, like its congeners.
BASIS FOR STATUS CLASSIFICATION. Was classified as endangered throughout its distribution (Williams et al. 1993), and endangered but extirpated from Alabama (Lydeard et al. 1999). Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1990.
                Prepared by: Jeffrey T. Garner
 
SOUTHERN ACORNSHELL
Epioblasma othcaloogensis (Lea)
OTHER NAMES. None.
DESCRIPTION. Has moderately solid and inflated shell (max. length = 25 mm [1 in.]), quadrate in outline, with anterior margin rounded, posterior margin truncate above and rounded below, dorsal margin slightly convex, and ventral margin straight. Females may have a slight marsupial swelling and may be somewhat more truncate posteriorly than males. Posterior ridge rounded. Weak, radial sculpture may be visible on posterior half of shell. Umbos moderately inflated and elevated well above hinge line. Periostracum smooth and shiny, yellowish, and without rays. Pseudocardinal teeth elevated, ragged, and slightly compressed; lateral teeth short and straight to slightly curved. No interdentum present, and umbo cavity shallow. Shell nacre white. (Modified from Simpson 1914, Parmalee and Bogan 1998)
DISTRIBUTION. Endemic to upper Coosa River system in Alabama, Georgia, and Tennessee (Parmalee and Bogan 1998), but has not been reported in more than 20 years.
HABITAT. Small to medium rivers in fine gravel substrata (Parmalee and Bogan 1998).
LIFE HISTORY AND ECOLOGY. Unknown. Other species of Epioblasma are long-term brooders and use darters (Percidae) as glochidial hosts (Yeager and Saylor 1995, Rogers et al. 2001).
BASIS FOR STATUS CLASSIFICATION. Has not been seen alive in more than 20 years. Was classified as endangered throughout its distribution (Williams et al. 1993), in Alabama (Stansbery 1976a), and Lydeard et al. (1999) suggested that it was extirpated from state. Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1993.
Prepared by: Wendell R. Haag
 
GREEN FLOATER
Lasmigona subviridis (Conrad)
OTHER NAMES. None.
DESCRIPTION. Has thin, slightly inflated, subovate shell (max. length approx. 60 mm [2 3/8 in.]), narrower anteriorly, higher posteriorly, with a dorsal margin that forms a blunt angle with posterior margin. Posterior ridge low and rounded, appearing more as a slight swelling than a ridge. Umbos low and not elevated above hinge line. Periostracum color varies from dull yellow to tan or brownish green, with variable dark green rays. Pseudocardinal teeth lamellate and directed forward of beak, almost parallel with hinge line; lateral teeth long, straight, and thin. Shell nacre dull, bluish white, often with mottled shades or tints of salmon in umbo cavity. (Modified from Parmalee and Bogan 1998)
DISTRIBUTION. Atlantic Coast drainages, but also occurs in Apalachicola Basin of Alabama and Georgia (Brim Box and Williams 2000). Found as far north as St. Lawrence-Hudson River system. Also reported from Watauga River of upper Tennessee River system (Parmalee and Bogan 1998). In Alabama, reported only from Chattahoochee River near Columbus, Georgia (Brim Box and Williams 2000).
HABITAT. Primarily quiet reaches of streams out of main current, in pools or eddies with gravel and sand bottoms, but also may occur in canals (Ortmann 1919). Reported from pockets of sand and gravel among boulders in East Tennessee (Parmalee and Bogan 1998).
LIFE HISTORY AND ECOLOGY. A long-term brooder, gravid from September to June in Pennsylvania, and typically hermaphroditic (Ortmann 1919). Hosts of glochidia unknown.
BASIS FOR STATUS CLASSIFICATION. Has not been reported from Chattahoochee River system since the nineteenth century (Brim Box and Williams 2000). Classified as threatened throughout distribution (Williams et al. 1993) and deemed extirpated from Alabama (Lydeard et al. 1999).
Prepared by: Stuart W. McGregor
 
SCALESHELL MUSSEL
Leptodea leptodon (Rafinesque)
OTHER NAMES. None.
DESCRIPTION. Has thin, fragile, and compressed shell (max. length approx. 120 mm [4 3/4 in.]), elongate and ovate to rhomboidal in shape, with a rounded anterior margin, bluntly pointed posterior margin and nearly straight ventral margin. Posterior ridge distinct, but low and rounded. Shell disk and posterior ridge unsculptured. Umbos small, compressed, placed anteriorly, and not elevated above hinge line. Periostracum yellowish or olive green, often with numerous wide, faint green rays. Pseudocardinal teeth reduced to very small, tubercular swellings; lateral teeth long and appear as swellings of hinge line anteriorly. Interdentum absent and umbo cavity very shallow or absent. Shell nacre purplish or salmon on upper half, with remainder bluish and iridescent. (Modified from Parmalee and Bogan 1998)
DISTRIBUTION. Historically, from upper Mississippi drainage south to Tennessee River system, and from western New York to southern Michigan and southern Manitoba (Parmalee and Bogan 1998). In Alabama, was confined to Tennessee River at Muscle Shoals (Ortmann 1925). Not reported from Alabama since impoundment of the Tennessee River (Garner and McGregor 2001).
HABITAT. A shoal species, found in clear, unpolluted water with good current, and known to burrow down into substratum several centimeters (inches) (Oesch 1995).
LIFE HISTORY AND ECOLOGY. A long-term brooder (Baker 1928) with glochidia reported in marsupia in September to November and March (Gordon 1991). Only reported host for glochidia is the freshwater drum (USFWS 2001).
BASIS FOR STATUS CLASSIFICATION. Was classified as endangered throughout its distribution (Williams et al. 1993) and deemed extirpated from Alabama (Stansbery 1976a, Lydeard et al. 1999). Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 2001.
                Prepared by: Stuart W. McGregor
 
 
 
COOSA MOCCASINSHELL
Medionidus parvulus (Lea)
OTHER NAMES. None.
DESCRIPTION. Has thin and slightly compressed shell (max. length = 40 mm [1 5/8 in.]), subrhomboid in outline, with a rounded anterior margin, bluntly pointed posterior margin, slightly convex dorsal margin, and straight to somewhat concave ventral margin. Males often slightly arcuate and females slightly more inflated than males posteriorly. Posterior ridge rounded. Low, curved folds or plications adorn posterior slope and may extend onto posterior ridge. Remainder of shell disk unsculptured. Umbos moderately inflated, but hardly elevated above hinge line. Periostracum greenish to yellowish, with numerous, faint green wavy lines that sometimes form wider rays. Pseudocardinal teeth small, compressed, and erect; lateral teeth long and thin, straight to slightly curved. No interdentum present and umbo cavity very shallow. Shell nacre bluish white. (Modified from Simpson 1914, Parmalee and Bogan 1998)
DISTRIBUTION. Endemic to Coosa River system in Alabama, Georgia, and Tennessee (Parmalee and Bogan 1998). Apparently extant only in some headwater rivers in Georgia.
HABITAT. Historically, in sand, gravel, and cobble substrata (Parmalee and Bogan 1998) of small streams to large rivers, mostly above the Fall Line.
LIFE HISTORY AND ECOLOGY. Unknown. Other species of genus are long-term brooders and use darters (Percidae) as glochidial hosts (Zale and Neves 1982a, Haag and Warren 1997; O’Brien and Williams 2002; Haag and Warren 2003).
BASIS FOR STATUS CLASSIFICATION. Has experienced a dramatic reduction in distribution and today occurs only in a few widely scattered localities. Classified as endangered throughout its distribution (Williams et al. 1993) and in Alabama (Lydeard et al. 1999). Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1993.
                Prepared by: Wendell R. Haag
 
HICKORYNUT
Obovaria olivaria (Rafinesque)
OTHER NAMES. None.
DESCRIPTION. Has thick, solid, inflated shell (max. length = approx. 100 mm [3 3/4 in.]). Males generally larger than females. Ovate or elliptical in outline, with anterior and ventral margins broadly rounded. Posterior margin broadly pointed in males and more rounded in females. Posterior ridge rounded and barely perceptible. Shell disk and posterior slope smooth. Umbos inflated, directed forward, and elevated above hinge line. Umbo sculpture consists of a few somewhat double-looped bars. Periostracum olive green to yellowish brown, becoming very dark brown with age. Young shells have distinct, fine green rays, but often obscured in old specimens. Pseudocardinal teeth heavy, roughened, and triangular, with small, thin accessory teeth; lateral teeth long, raised, and striate. Interdentum short and wide and umbo cavity shallow. Shell nacre white, but often has a pink or cream wash in center of valve. (Modified from Simpson 1914, Parmalee and Bogan 1998)
DISTRIBUTION. Throughout most of the Mississippi River drainage from Pennsylvania and New York to Minnesota and Kansas, south to Louisiana. Also occurs in St. Lawrence River Basin (Parmalee and Bogan 1998). In the Tennessee River, it apparently only occurred as far upstream as Muscle Shoals (Ortmann 1925), but has not been collected from there in recent years (Garner and McGregor 2001).
HABITAT. Seems to prefer sand or gravel substrata in water generally more than two meters (6 1/2 feet) deep, with good current. Often found in mussel beds in midstream of larger rivers (Parmalee and Bogan 1998).
LIFE HISTORY AND ECOLOGY. A long-term brooder with eggs and developing glochidia reported in marsupia from August to June. Only reported host of glochidia is shovelnose sturgeon (Coker et al. 1921).
BASIS FOR STATUS CLASSIFICATION. Has not been reported from Alabama since 1970s (Gooch et al. 1979, Garner and McGregor 2001). While Stansbery (1976a) considered it endangered in Alabama, more recently listed as currently stable throughout its distribution (Williams et al. 1993) and in Alabama (Lydeard et al. 1999). Thought extremely rare in, or extirpated from, entire Tennessee River (Parmalee and Bogan 1998).
                Prepared by: Stuart W. McGregor
 
LITTLEWING PEARLYMUSSEL
Pegias fabula (Lea)
OTHER NAMES. None.
DESCRIPTION. Has oblong shell (rarely exceeding 35 mm [1 3/8 in.]), somewhat triangular in outline, with a rounded anterior margin and posterior margin biangulate in males and truncate in females. Posterior ridge sharp and well defined with a medial ridge anterior to posterior ridge, and a wide, radial depression separating them. Depression ends at marginal biangulation on posterior ventral margin. Biangulation weakened in females, which are more swollen posteriorly and have a more truncate posterior margin. Shell disk and posterior slope without sculpture. Umbos elevated above hinge line. Umbo sculpture consists of heavy, subconcentric rings. Shells almost always heavily eroded, often with no vestige of periostracum. When present, periostracum tawny to brown, with brown or olive green rays. Pseudocardinal teeth irregular and triangular; lateral teeth appear as short, faint ridges. A rudimentary interdentum may or may not be present. Umbo cavity deep and impressed. Shell nacre thickened anteriorly and tan or salmon in umbo cavity, but white elsewhere. (Modified from Simpson 1914, Parmalee and Bogan 1998)
DISTRIBUTION. Endemic to Cumberland and Tennessee River systems (Stansbery 1976b, Ahlstedt and Saylor 1995). In Alabama, historically found in Bluewater Creek, Lauderdale County (Ortmann 1925), and possibly other Tennessee River tributaries.
HABITAT. Riffles, often in high gradient tributary streams (Ahlstedt and Saylor 1995). Apparently also occurred in streams of moderate to low gradient prior to modern perturbation of these systems (e.g., Bluewater Creek, Lauderdale County; Ortmann 1925).
LIFE HISTORY AND ECOLOGY. A long-term brooder. Gravid females reported as early as September (Ortmann 1914, 1921; Ahlstedt and Saylor 1995). Greenside and emerald darters identified as glochidial hosts (Layzer and Madison 1995). Although remaining buried in substrata or under flat rocks for much of their lives, gravid females mayemerge and lie on surface during autumn, presumably as part of reproductive activities such as glochidia discharge (Ahlstedt and Saylor 1995).
BASIS FOR STATUS CLASSIFICATION. Suffered severe distribution reductions during twentieth century. Limited distribution, rarity, and declining population trend make it vulnerable to extinction. Classified as endangered throughout its distribution (Stansbery 1970, Williams et al. 1993) and extirpated from Alabama (Stansbery 1976a, Lydeard et al. 1999). Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1976.
                Prepared by: Jeffrey T. Garner
 
 
CLUBSHELL
Pleurobema clava (Lamarck)
OTHER NAMES. Northern Clubshell.
DESCRIPTION. Has solid and moderately inflated shell (max. length = 65 mm [2 5/8 in.]), elongate and triangular in outline, with a broadly rounded anterior margin, obliquely truncate or broadly pointed posterior margin, straight dorsal margin, and slightly convex to straight ventral margin. Posterior ridge rounded, but usually prominent, with a wide, shallow sulcus located anteriorly. Shell disk and posterior slope without sculpture. Umbos full and elevated above hinge line, located and oriented anteriorly, and often project past anterior margin of shell. Umbo sculpture consists of a few irregular, often broken, ridges. Periostracum yellowish or yellowish brown, usually with dark green rays that may be broken into irregular blotches and most prominent on umbo. Pseudocardinal teeth triangular, serrate, and erect, usually parallel to hinge line; lateral teeth long, thin, elevated, and may be straight or slightly curved. Interdentum narrow and umbo cavity shallow. Shell nacre white. (Modified from Simpson 1914, Parmalee and Bogan 1998)
DISTRIBUTION. Historically, from the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers, north to New York and Minnesota and west to Nebraska (Parmalee and Bogan 1998). However, has disappeared from much of its distribution and appears to be extirpated from Alabama (Garner and McGregor 2001).
HABITAT. Medium to large rivers, generally occurring in shoal habitats (Parmalee and Bogan 1998).
LIFE HISTORY AND ECOLOGY. A short-term brooder, with gravid females from May through July (Ortmann 1919). Hosts of glochidia unknown.
BASIS FOR STATUS CLASSIFICATION. Suffered drastic habitat loss and population fragmentation during twentieth century. Has been classified as endangered in Alabama (Stansbery 1976a) and throughout its distribution (Williams et al. 1993), and more recently listed as extirpated from the state (Lydeard et al. 1999). Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1993.
                Prepared by: Jeffrey T. Garner
 
BLACK CLUBSHELL
Pleurobema curtum (Lea)
OTHER NAMES. None.
DESCRIPTION. Has moderately thick and inflated shell (max. length = 50 mm [2 in.]), elongate triangular in outline, with a very broadly rounded to somewhat truncate anterior margin, bluntly pointed posterior margin, almost straight dorsal margin, and broadly convex ventral margin. Posterior ridge low, positioned near dorsal margin. A low, wide, radial swelling positioned just anterior of mid line. Shell disk and posterior slope without sculpture. Umbos full and elevated well above hinge line, positioned almost at anterior margin. Periostracum greenish in young specimens, darkening to greenish brown with age. Pseudocardinal teeth triangular and radially arranged; lateral teeth moderately long and almost straight. Interdentum short and narrow and umbo cavity shallow. Shell nacre bluish white. (Modified from Simpson 1914, USFWS 2000)
DISTRIBUTION. Endemic to Tombigbee River in Alabama and Mississippi (Stansbery 1976a, Williams 1982). Appears to have been extirpated from Alabama with construction of Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway.
HABITAT. Was restricted to lotic habitat of main stem of Tombigbee River, where it occurred in gravel and sand substrata in moderate to swift current (Williams 1982).
LIFE HISTORY AND ECOLOGY. Unknown. Other species of Pleurobema short-term brooders and use cyprinids as host fishes (Haag and Warren 2003).
BASIS FOR STATUS CLASSIFICATION. Most of habitatdestroyed by construction of Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway. A small population persisted until mid-1980s in a short section of upper Tombigbee River in Mississippi not directly modified by waterway (Hartfield and Jones 1989). Extremely rare, if extant, anywhere within its limited historic distribution. Was listed as endangered (Stansbery 1976a) in Alabama and throughout its distribution (Williams et al. 1993), and most recently considered extirpated from Alabama (Lydeard et al. 1999).Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1987.
                Prepared by: Wendell R. Haag
 
 
 
FLAT PIGTOE
Pleurobema marshalli Frierson  
OTHER NAMES. None.
DESCRIPTION. Has solid, inflated shell (max. length = 60 mm [2 3/8 in.]), ovate to obliquely elliptical in outline, with broadly rounded anterior and posterior margins and gently convex dorsal and ventral margins. Posterior slope well-developed and may be slightly doubled. Although shell generally without a sulcus, usually with a flattened area just anterior to posterior ridge. Shell disk and posterior slope generally without sculpture, but there may be a few weak pustules ventrally. Umbos inflated and elevated well above hinge line, positioned near anterior end and turned slightly forward. Periostracum brown to reddish brown. Pseudocar-dinal teeth triangular and divergent; lateral teeth moderately long and slightly curved. Interdentum well developed, but umbo cavity shallow. Shell nacre white. (Modified from USFWS 2000)
DISTRIBUTION. Endemic to Tombigbee River in Alabama and Mississippi (Stansbery 1976a, Williams 1982). Extirpated from Tombigbee River proper, and may be extinct altogether, but could possibly exist in a large tributary of river.
HABITAT. Was restricted to lotic habitat of main channel of Tombigbee River. Occurred in gravel and sand substrata in moderate to swift current (Williams 1982).
LIFE HISTORY AND ECOLOGY. Unknown. Other species of Pleurobema short-term brooders and use cyprinids as hosts for their glochidia (Haag and Warren 2003).
BASIS FOR STATUS CLASSIFICATION. All known big river habitat was destroyed by construction of Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway. Was classified as endangered in Alabama (Stansbery 1976a) and throughout its distribution (Williams et al. 1993), but more recently considered extirpated from state (Lydeard et al. 1999). Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1987.
                Prepared by: Wendell R. Haag
 
FLUTED KIDNEYSHELL
Ptychobranchus subtentum (Say)
OTHER NAMES. None.
DESCRIPTION. Has solid, moderately inflated shell (max. length = 120 mm [4 3/4 in.], but usually 80-90 mm [3 1/8 - 3 1/2 in.] long), slightly obovate and subrhomboid in outline, with a broadly rounded anterior margin, straight or slightly concave ventral margin, and slightly convex dorsal margin. Posterior margin generally rounded in males, but females have a slightly pronounced basal region with posterior point raised a little above base line. Posterior ridge pronounced but rounded, sloping to a rounded margin. Posterior slope radially plicate or corrugated in most individuals. Shell disk unsculptured. Umbos fairly compressed, barely rising above hinge line. Periostracum smooth and slightly shiny in young individuals, but becomes duller and satin-like along ventral margins with age. Periostracum greenish yellow, becoming dull brown with age, generally with several broken, wide green rays that may be in form of square spots or zigzag markings. Pseudocardinal teeth stumpy and usually triangular; lateral teeth heavy and slightly curved. Interdentum narrow and curved. Umbo cavity shallow. Shell nacre varies from bluish white to tan or yellowish, often with a wash of salmon. (Modified from Parmalee and Bogan 1998)
DISTRIBUTION. From upper Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers, ranging downstream to Muscle Shoals in the Tennessee River (Ortmann 1925, Parmalee and Bogan 1998). Has not been reported from Alabama since impoundment of the Tennessee River (Garner and McGregor 2001).
HABITAT. Primarily streams and small rivers with fast current and a depth of less than or equal to one meter (3 1/4 feet), and sand or a mixture of sand and gravel substrata (Parmalee and Bogan 1998).
LIFE HISTORY AND ECOLOGY. A long-term brooder (Parmalee and Bogan 1998). Reported fish hosts include rainbow, redline, fantail, and barcheek darters, and banded sculpin (Luo 1993).
BASIS FOR STATUS CLASSIFICATION. Classified as a species of special concern throughout its distribution (Williams et al. 1993) and was listed as endangered in Alabama (Stansbery 1976a). More recently listed as extirpated from the state (Lydeard et al. 1999). Recently elevated to a candidate for listing as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
                Prepared by: Stuart W. McGregor
 
CUMBERLAND BEAN
Villosa trabalis (Conrad)
OTHER NAMES. None.
DESCRIPTION. Has solid, elongate shell (max. length = 55 mm [2 1/8 in.]). Females grow slightly larger than males. Shell inflated, inequilateral, and irregularly oval, with a rounded anterior margin and ventral margin slightly rounded to straight, converging with posterior-dorsal surface in a rounded point. Males slightly narrowed at center and drawn out posteriorly, with posterior margin obliquely truncate above and ending in a rounded point below. Females higher and more evenly ovate and only slightly truncate behind and above posterior ridge. Posterior ridge full and rounded. Shell disk and posterior slope smooth. Umbos high, elevated slightly above hinge line, and positioned anterior of center and turned anteriorly. Periostracum dingy olive with numerous faint, wavy green rays. Pseudocardinal teeth heavy and triangular, right valve with accessory teeth; lateral teeth long, straight, and heavy. Interdentum narrow and umbo cavity shallow. Shell nacre bluish white, or white with a bluish posterior iridescence. (Modified from Simpson 1914, Parmalee and Bogan 1998)
DISTRIBUTION. Endemic to upper Cumberland River system in Kentucky and Tennessee River system from headwaters downstream to Muscle Shoals (Parmalee and Bogan 1998). Not reported from Alabama since impoundment of Tennessee River.
HABITAT. Most often in swift riffles of small rivers and streams, with gravel or a mixture of sand and gravel substrata (Parmalee and Bogan 1998). Although it was rare, its presence in main stem Tennessee River prior to its impoundment indicates its ability to live in large rivers under some conditions (Ortmann 1925).
LIFE HISTORY AND ECOLOGY. A long-term brooder. Fishes reportedly serving as hosts of glochidia include arrow, barcheek, fantail, Johnny, rainbow, snubnose, dirty, striped, and stripetail darters (Parmalee and Bogan 1998).
BASIS FOR STATUS CLASSIFICATION. Has disappeared from much of its former distribution and populations have become fragmented. Limited distribution and rarity make it vulnerable to extinction. Classified as endangered throughout its distribution (Williams et al. 1993) and in Alabama (Lydeard et al. 1999). Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1976.
                Prepared by: Stuart W. McGregor
 
Extirpated Alabama Freshwater Mussels which Currently have Conseration Action Underway
Taxa that historically occurred in Alabama, were absent for a period of time, and
currently are being reintroduced, or have a plan for being reintroduced,
 into the state from populations outside the state.
 
Order Unionoida
 Family Unionidae
DROMEDARY PEARLYMUSSEL Dromus dromas
OYSTER MUSSEL Epioblasma capsaeformis
BIRDWING PEARLYMUSSEL Lemiox rimosus
CUMBERLAND MONKEYFACE Quadrula intermedia
 
 
 
DROMEDARY PEARLYMUSSEL
Dromus dromas (Lea)
OTHER NAMES. Camel Shell.
DESCRIPTION. Has solid shell (max. length = 100 mm [3 3/4 in.]), rounded to subtriangular in outline, with all margins convex. Shell compressed, without a distinct posterior ridge. A hump or irregular knob usually present on the median line, near the umbo, and may be an indistinct row of small, low knobs down the midline of shell. Umbo extends a little above the hinge line, and umbo sculpture consists of fine ridges parallel to growth annuli. Periostracum golden brown to reddish brown, with numerous thin rays consisting of fine dark green flecks, and occasional wider rays consisting of irregular blotches. Pseudocardinal teeth heavy, low, and divergent; lateral teeth short and straight, with a wide, flat interdentum between. Umbo cavity deep and compressed. Shell nacre varies from white to pink. (Modified from Simpson 1914, Parmalee and Bogan 1998)
DISTRIBUTION. Confined to upper and middle reaches of Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers (Parmalee and Bogan 1998). In Alabama, historically occurred in Tennessee River downstream to Muscle Shoals. Had not been reported from Alabama since 1930s (van der Schalie 1939) until recent reintroduction.
HABITAT. Lotic areas of medium to large rivers, generally in shoals with clean, mixed substrata ranging in size from sand to cobble (USFWS 1983, Neves 1991). However, may also occur in water deeper than three meters in riverine habitats of Cumberland River (USFWS 1983).
LIFE HISTORY AND ECOLOGY. A long-term brooder, with gravid specimens reported from September through April (Ortmann 1921, Bogan and Parmalee 1998, Jones and Neves 2002a). Hosts of glochidia include greenside, fantail, snubnose, tangerine, channel, gilt, and Roanoke darters; blotchside logperch; and logperch (Jones and Neves 2002a). However, the Roanoke darter does not occur sympatrically with this species, so not a natural host. Generally remains well buried in the substratum (Neves 1991). Based on archaeological evidence, appears to have been one of the most abundant species in middle reaches of Tennessee River prehistorically (Morrison 1942). Unclear whether D. dromas was already in decline when the river was impounded. It has not been reported from the Tennessee River in Alabama since the river was impounded (Garner and McGregor 2001).
BASIS FOR STATUS CLASSIFICATION. Imperiled because of its restricted distribution, rarity, and specialized habitat requirements. Has been classified as endangered throughout its distribution (Williams et al. 1993) and in Alabama (Stansbery 1976a), and is now listed as probably extirpated from Alabama (Lydeard et al. 1999). Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1976.
                Prepared by: Jeffrey T. Garner
 
 
 
OYSTER MUSSEL
Epioblasma capsaeformis (Lea)
OTHER NAMES. None.
DESCRIPTION. Has a moderately thin shell (max. length = 70 mm [2 3/4 in.]). Males elliptical in outline whereas females of reproductive age are ovate, with a large, rounded marsupial swelling posteriorly. Posterior ridge low and may be slightly double in males, giving the shell a slightly biangulate posterior margin. Marsupial swelling of females thin, often adorned with small marginal serrations, and usually separated from remainder of shell by slight sulci anteriorly and posteriorly. Shell disk and posterior slope without sculpture. Umbos moderately inflated and elevated slightly above the hinge line. Umbo sculpture consists of very weak parallel loops. Periostracum yellowish green, with thin green rays, although marsupial swelling of females is usually dark green, sometimes black. Pseudocardinal teeth small and triangular, separated from the short, slightly curved lateral teeth by a very narrow interdentum. Umbo cavity shallow. Shell nacre bluish white. (Modified from Simpson 1914, Johnson 1978, Parmalee and Bogan 1998)
DISTRIBUTION. Endemic to Tennessee and Cumberland River systems. Historically occurred in Tennessee River downstream to Muscle Shoals, but naturally occurring populations not reported there since impoundment (Garner and McGregor 2001).
HABITAT. Lotic areas of small to large rivers, and large creeks. Although generally found in shoals with clean gravel substrata, also may inhabit quieter areas of shoals in substrata consisting of gravel and some mud (Neves 1991).
LIFE HISTORY AND ECOLOGY. A long-term brooder, holding glochidia from autumn through mid-May of the following year. Females display mantle tissue within their marsupial swelling during certain periods of the year. Display is bright blue in the Clinch River population and slate gray in the Duck River population. During display the shell is gaped to present the tissue, and small fish, including identified hosts, have been observed striking it. Glochidia discharged individually, as opposed to being discharged as part of host-attracting conglutinates. Fishes reported to serve as hosts for glochidia include spotted, redline, wounded, and dusky darters, as well as banded sculpin (Summarized from TVA 1986)
BASIS FOR STATUS CLASSIFICATION. Unable to cope with impoundment, and has disappeared from most of its historic distribution. Was classified as endangered throughout its distribution (Williams et al. 1993) and in Alabama (Lydeard et al. 1999). Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1997.
                Prepared by: Jeffrey T. Garner
 
 
 
BIRDWING PEARLYMUSSEL
Lemiox rimosus (Rafinesque)
OTHER NAMES. None.
DESCRIPTION. Has solid, slightly inflated shell (rarely > 50 mm [2 in.] long), subtriangular to subovate in outline, with a broadly rounded anterior margin and obliquely truncate posterior margin, that comes to a broad point ventrally; slightly convex dorsal margin and straight ventral margin. Posterior ridge somewhat rounded, but distinct. Males grow larger than females and often have a shallow, radial depression just anterior of posterior ridge. Females lack depression and often have a weak marsupial swelling posteriorly. Posterior half of shell marked by strong corrugated, subradial sculpture. Umbos high and turned anteriorly, barely elevated above hinge line. Umbo sculpture consists of distinct, double-looped bars. Periostracum dull green or yellowish green, and marked with weak rays in young specimens; darkens with age to almost black. Pseudocardinal teeth low and rugged; lateral teeth short and slightly curved and interdentum broad. Umbo cavity very shallow. Shell nacre white. (Modified from Simpson 1914, Parmalee and Bogan 1998)
DISTRIBUTION. Historically occurred in Tennessee River system, from its headwaters downstream to Muscle Shoals. A disjunct population in the Duck River (USFWS 1983) may be the only viable population (Parmalee and Bogan 1998). Was extant, at least in small numbers, in the Clinch, Powell, and Elk Rivers as late as early 1980s (USFWS 1983).
HABITAT. Flowing water in small to large rivers (USFWS 1983, Parmalee and Bogan 1998). However, was extirpated from large rivers with their impoundment.
LIFE HISTORY AND ECOLOGY. A long-term brooder, gravid from mid-September through early July (Ortmann 1916, TVA 1986). Releases glochidia individually, with those aborted as conglutinates apparently not viable (TVA 1986). Fishes reportedly serving as hosts of glochidia are greenside and banded darters (TVA 1986).
BASIS FOR STATUS CLASSIFICATION. Classified as endangered throughout its distribution (Williams et al. 1993) and as extirpated from Alabama (Lydeard et al. 1999). Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1976.
                Prepared by: Jeffrey T. Garner
 
CUMBERLAND MONKEYFACE
Quadrula intermedia (Conrad)
OTHER NAMES. None.
DESCRIPTION. Has compressed and solid shell (max. length = 80 mm [3 1/8 in.]), suborbicular to subquadrate in outline, rounded anteriorly and posteriorly, but with posterior margin biangulate. Dorsal and ventral margins usually slightly rounded. Posterior ridge weak and posterior slope marked with a deep, wide, radial depression that gives biangulation to posterior margin. All but anterior one-third of shell surface covered with large tubercles. Umbos somewhat compressed and elevated slightly above hinge line. Periostracum greenish yellow, with variable, fine, angular green spots, chevrons, or zigzags, and may also have broken green rays. Pseudocardinal teeth radially striate and triangular; lateral teeth short, broad, and slightly curved. Interdentum wide and umbo cavity deep and compressed. Shell nacre white, often tinted with salmon, especially posteriorly. (Modified from Simpson 1914, Parmalee and Bogan 1998)
DISTRIBUTION. Endemic to Tennessee River system, historically found from its headwaters downstream to Muscle Shoals (Parmalee and Bogan 1998). Also occurred in some large tributaries such as the Elk River. Appears to be extirpated from Alabama.
HABITAT. Occurs in lotic habitat of small to medium rivers, typically in gravel substrata. Usually found well buried in substratum (Neves 1991). However, its presence at Muscle Shoals prior to impoundment of Tennessee River indicates that it can live in large rivers under some conditions (Ortmann 1925).
LIFE HISTORY AND ECOLOGY. A short-term brooder, with females gravid in May and June (TVA 1986). Fishes reported to serve as hosts for glochidia include streamline and blotched chubs (TVA 1986, Yeager and Saylor 1995).
BASIS FOR STATUS CLASSIFICATION. Suffered drastic reductions in distribution with impoundment of Tennessee River system. Limited distribution, rarity, and susceptibility to habitat degradation make it vulnerable to extinction. Classified as endangered throughout its distribution (Williams et al. 1993). Was listed as endangered in Alabama (Stansbery 1976a), but more recently listed as extirpated there (Lydeard et al. 1999). Listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1976.
Prepared by: Jeffrey T. Garner

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